Diabetes In Children And Adolescents

April 3, 2021 2 weeks ago leave a comment 16 Views Likes:

Diabetes In Children And Adolescents


What is diabetes?

This is a chronic health condition that occurs when the pancreas of the body produces little or no insulin and affects how the body uses glucose.

Types of diabetes

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

Causes of diabetes

  • The cause for Type 1 is generally unknown, however, in most people with it, the body’s immune system whose main duty is to fight bacteria, destroys the insulin-producing cells leading to low production of insulin in the child and this leads to sugar build up in the child’s bloodstream, and if left untreated, it causes life-damaging complications.
  • Many children with Type 2 have at least a parent with it and a family history of it and are mostly overweight. Having excess body fat makes it more difficult for insulin response by cells and this is even worsened by a sedentary lifestyle. Also, adolescents are more likely to have it than infants and younger kids, probably due to hormonal level increase.

Complications

  • Type 1 diabetes can affect the major organs in your body. Keeping your blood sugar level close to normal most of the time can dramatically reduce the risk of many complications. Complications can include: Heart and blood vessel disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, eye damage, and lower than normal bone mineral density, increasing the child’s risk of osteoporosis later as an adult.
  • Type 2 diabetes can lead to Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in girls, hypertension (high blood pressure), or abnormal levels of blood fats. This is the metabolic syndrome that increases the risk for heart disease, stroke, and other health diseases.
    Some of these complications may not happen in childhood but may happen as they transit into adulthood.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Peeing regularly
  • Frequent thirst or hunger
  • Dry mouth
  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained loss of weight
  • Slow skin repair after injury
  • Heavy or forced breathing
  • Numbness of hands or feet etc.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Self-diagnosis should be avoided, see a doctor.

  • Teach the child healthy feeding and exercise habits
  • Ensure the child engages in recommended exercises
  • Ensure healthy eating and living
  • Use recommended medications
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Monitor blood sugar regularly

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Written by Feyisayo Adegbenjo

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